Generalizable surrogate models for the improved early-stage exploration of structural design alternatives in building construction
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The optimization of complex structures is extremely time consuming. To obtain their optimization results, researchers often wait for several hours and even days. Then, if they have to make a slight change in their input parameters, they must run their optimization problem again. This iterative process of defining a problem and finding a set of optimized solutions may take several days and sometimes several weeks. Therefore, to reduce optimization time, researchers have developed various approximation-based models that predict the results of time-consuming analysis. These simple analytical models, known as “meta- or surrogate models,” are based on data available from limited analysis runs. These “models of the model” seek to approximate computation-intensive functions within a considerably shorter time than expensive simulation codes that require significant computing power. One of the limitations of metamodels (or interchangeably surrogate models) developed for the structural approximation of trusses and space frames is lack of generalizability. Since such metamodels are exclusively designed for a specific structure, they can predict the performance of only the structures for which they are designed. For instance, if a metamodel is designed for a ten-bar truss, it cannot predict the analysis results of another ten-bar truss with different boundary conditions. In addition, they cannot be re-used if the topology of a structure changes (e.g., from a ten-bar truss to a 12-bar truss). If designers change the topology, they must generate new sample data and re-train their model. Therefore, the predictability of these exclusive models is limited. From a combination of the analysis of data from structures with various geometries, the objective of this study is to create, test, and validate generalizable metamodels that predict the results of finite element analysis. Developing these models requires two main steps: feature generation and model creation. In the first step, involving the use of 11 features for nodes and three for members, the physical representation of four types of domes, slabs, and walls were transformed into numerical values. Then, by randomly varying the cross-sectional area, the stress value of each member was recorded. In the second step, these feature vectors were used to create, test, and verify various metamodels in an examination of four hypotheses. The results of the hypotheses show that with generalizable metamodels, the analysis of data from various structures can be combined and used for predicting the performance of the members of structures or new structures within the same class of geometry. For instance, given the same radius for all domes, a metamodel generated from the analysis of data from a 700-, 980-, and 1,525-member dome can predict the structural performance of the members of these domes or a new dome with 250 members. In addition, the results show that generalizable metamodels are able to more closely predict the results of a finite element analysis than metamodels exclusively created for a specific structure. A case study was selected to examine the application of generalizable metamodels for the early-stage exploration of structural design alternatives in a construction project. The results illustrates that the optimization with generalizable metamodels reduces the time and cost of the project, fostering more efficient planning and more rapid decision-making by architects, contractors, and engineers at the early stage of construction projects.