Perception in Hand-Worn Haptics: Placement, Simultaneous Stimuli, and Vibration Motor Comparisons
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Glove-based tactile interfaces are used for augmented reality, rehabilitation, teaching, and consumer electronics control. Yet questions remain regarding perception of tactile stimuli on the hands. In an effort to inform the design of such tactile interfaces, we investigate participants' abilities to sense vibration on the hands. First, we examine the effect of stimulus location on recognition accuracy. Ventral (palm-side) placement on the fingers is critical: accuracy increases with proximity to the palm, linearly, on all fingers. Second, we study perception of multiple simultaneous vibrations on the fingers. Recognition degrades with increasing number of simultaneous tactile stimuli and no subitizing is found. Error is >60-80\% for more than two simultaneous stimuli points. Our third study compares the perception of Eccentric Rotating Mass (ERM) and Linear Resonant Actuator (LRA) vibration motors. Recognition accuracy was less using LRA motors, especially in placements on the palm side of the fingers (-20.3% versus -10.1% for ERM). Correct recognition of chords was also less or comparable using LRA motors, suggesting that the ERM motor is preferable.