THz device-to-device communications: Channel measurements, modelling, simulation, and antenna design
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As the demand for smaller devices that can offer higher speed wireless communication any time and anywhere is growing relentlessly, the need for higher frequency bands with wide unregulated bandwidth that can support multi-Gigabits/s data rates have become essential. The opening up of carrier frequencies in the THz range, such as D-band (i.e. 110−170 GHz) and around 300 GHz, is the most promising approach to provide sufficient bandwidth required for ultra-fast and ultra-broadband data transmission. This large bandwidth paired with higher speed wireless links can open the door to a large number of novel applications such as ultra-high-speed pico-cell cellular links, Terabits/s (Tbps) WLAN and WPAN, secure wireless communication for military and defense applications, and on-body communication for health monitoring systems. The substance of this research is measurement, characterization, and modelling of short-range indoor THz channels that can provide ultra-high-speed communication links. Specifically, in this work, frequencies in D-band (110 GHz–170 GHz) as well as the 300 GHz band (300 GHz–320 GHz) that have 20 to 60 GHz of essentially undeveloped and available bandwidths are considered. In this research, first of all, a Linearly-Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) that operates in the frequency range 280 − 320 GHz is designed, simulated, and fabricated to test the efficiency of a classical ultra-broadband antenna when operated at THz band. Secondly, the Line-of-Sight (LoS) and the Non-Line-of-Sight (NLoS) channel measurements are obtained in 300 GHz band and D-band through extensive indoor measurement campaigns, and the large- and the small-scale characterization is performed on each channel. Further, the NLoS transmissions through different propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, caused by obstruction of varying shapes and materials are characterized and modelled. Third, a two-dimensional (2-D) geometry-based statistical channel model for short-range THz channels is proposed and validated using the data collected from the measurement campaigns in the two THz bands. Finally, another sub-THz band around 33.25 GHz (26.5 GHz–40 GHz), or 30 GHz band, is also measured in the same environment as the two THz bands, and the comparative analysis of the three bands is done. This work provides system designers and researchers with essential input needed for realizing THz wireless communication systems.
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