Insightﾠ into the Incipient Smart Cities Phenomena in India
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While there is no clear universally accepted definition of a smart city, one can interpret the term as an urban regeneration tool employed to integrate urban informatics in the fabric of a city to promote sustainable growth and economic development. The conceptualization of Smart City, therefore, varies from city to city and country to country, depending on the level of development, willingness to reform, resources available and desires of the city residents.This paper aims to understand smart city definitions, concepts, frameworks and challenges by reviewing literature and presenting two case studies of existing smart cities.The research aims to build on the body of existing literature concerning the concepts and theoretical frameworks engaged to analyze smart cities, namely the SMART model and the Smart City Reference  Model. Further, the paper aims to compare the structures, frameworks and guidelines used by the two existing cities to two smart cities selected under the Smart Cities Mission, India. Although all global smart cities are in their nascent stages, the paper aims to identify tools, references and policy recommendations that Indian cities could learn and deploy. A main goal of smart cities is to promote economic growth and development, and although there is no definite data to draw conclusions, this paper aims to identify economic development tools, [other than ICT and IoT techniques] used by the existing smart cities and summon recommendations for the Indian cities. With a full understanding of theoretical framework, governance structures and contextual barriers to smart city implementation, the research will provide recommendations to increase effective implementation of the Smart City Initiative in India.