Gender differences in verbal, mathematical, and overall academic self-concept: a meta-analytic review
Velez, Chelsea Vance
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The literature provides many examples suggesting that males have, on average, higher academic self-concept levels when compared to females, especially in mathematical domains. Three meta-analyses were conducted to examine the magnitude of differences in overall academic, verbal, and mathematical self-concept. For all three constructs, males scored significantly higher than females on measures of self-concept, with weighted mean effect sizes from d = 0.13 to d = 0.41. Additionally, moderator variables such as the publication year of the study, were examined in an attempt to identify potential sources of gender differences in academic self-concept domains. The results of moderator analyses were varied across overall academic, verbal, and mathematical self-concept.