Effects of Toxic Stimuli Combinations on Determination of Exposure Limits
Kostoff, Ronald N.
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This monograph addresses the effects of toxic stimuli combinations on determination of safe Exposure Limits. It shows these combinations 1) typically lower the threshold constituent exposure levels associated with damage compared to 2) tests of combination constituents run in isolation. The monograph concludes there is no reason to believe today that ANY of the Exposure Limits on potentially toxic stimuli that have been set by ANY of the regulatory agencies are fully protective against serious adverse health effects. While radiofrequency radiation (RFR) is used for illustrative purposes in a number of the examples presented, the conclusions are applicable to essentially all potential contributing factors to disease amenable to Exposure Limits. RFR combinations are the focal point in Appendix 2, where their potential role in contributing to the national/global opioid epidemic is also discussed.
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