Thermal performance enhancement of packaging substrates with integrated vapor chamber
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The first part of this research investigates the effects of copper structures, such as copper through-package-vias (TPVs), and copper traces in redistribution layer (RDL), on the thermal performance of glass interposers through numerical and experimental approaches. Numerical parametric study on 2.5D interposers shows that as more copper structures are incorporated in glass interposers, the performance of silicon and glass interposers becomes closer, showing 31% difference in thermal resistance, compared to 53% difference without any copper structures in both interposers. In the second part of this study, a thermal model of glass interposer mounted on the vapor chamber integrated PCB is developed using multi-scale modeling scheme. The comparison of thermal performance between silicon and glass interposers shows that integration of vapor chamber with PCB makes thermal performance of both interposers almost identical, overcoming the limitation posed by low thermal conductivity of glass. The third part of this thesis focuses on design, fabrication, and performance measurement of PCB integrated with vapor chamber. Copper micropillar wick structure is fabricated on PCB with electroplating process, and its wettability is enhanced by silica nanoparticle coating. Design of the wick for the vapor chamber is determined based on the capillary performance and permeability test results. Fabricated device with ultra-thin thickness (~800 µm) shows higher thermal performance than copper plated PCB with the same thickness. Finally, 3D computational fluid dynamics/heat transfer model of the vapor chamber is developed, and modeling result is compared with test result.