Materials for next-generation lithography: Crosslinked molecular resists and photo-patternable underlayers
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As feature sizes on integrated circuits (computer chips) continue to decrease in accordance with Moore’s Law, new technologies are needed to maintain pace. Next-generation lithographic techniques, including extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), are expected to replace current lithography processes in the coming years. This new technique will require new tools and materials in order to be realized. In particular, new photoresists will need to be developed that can be patterned at the small feature sizes expected to be used with these new techniques. This thesis will explore both negative and positive-tone crosslinked molecular resists as materials capable of sub-50nm imaging. Block copolymers have also emerged as a means of extending the usefulness of current lithographic processes. The last portion of this thesis will explore underlayers designed to direct the self-assembly of block copolymers into lithographically-useful features. The underlayers presented can be directly patterned using various radiation sources, offering a more direct route to achieving self-assembly of block copolymers.