3D and 2.5D microfabrication technologies for high-density electronic heterogeneous integration and biosensing applications
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The demand for continuous increase in computing performance has put an overburdening demand on I/O interface and novel heterogeneous integration to allow performance benefits at system level. The demand for high-density integration is not limited to computing systems but, with ever increase use of electronics in biological science space, extends to in vitro and in vivo biosensing systems as well. In this research, 3D and 2.5D microfabrication technologies for advancing heterogeneous integration and biosensing systems are presented. Technology enablers for realizing large-scale silicon systems as well as unique fabrication allowing 3D solenoidal micro-inductors alongside flexible interconnects are discussed in the first half of the thesis. The fabrication technology utilizes photoresist reflow process to obtain dome-shaped structures to serve as the basis for the flexible interconnects, self-alignment structures and 3D solenoidal micro-inductors. The fabrication technology discussed in Chapter 3 also gives control over the height, thickness, material and pitch of the fabricated flexible interconnects. This allows for close integration of disparate ICs along with micro-inductors. The same fabrication process is then adapted and applied to in vitro and in vivo biosensing domain; through-silicon-vias and flexible interconnects are used to fabricate an electronic microplate platform for low-cost high-throughput biosensing. Furthermore, the reflow process is further utilized to fabricate 3D multi-electrode arrays on flexible substrate for high SNR EMG recordings from songbird.