Advancing turbulent spray and combustion models for compression ignition engine simulations
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This thesis seeks to investigate the turbulent mixing influence on spray atomization and combustion processes encountered in compression ignition diesel engines. Despite greater thermal efficiency of diesel engine than spark ignition engine, the nature of stratified air-fuel mixture and non-premixed flame gives rise to unacceptable levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM), thus the use of diesel engines has often been limited to heavy-duty vehicle and industrial power sources. However, recent advancement in diesel engine combustion strategies, e.g. low temperature combustion (LTC), has demonstrated promising pathways towards improvement in the engine-out pollutants. Therefore, particularly in the effort of computer-aided engine design tasks, such a new engine design concept requires more accurate modeling techniques applicable over a broader range of engine operating conditions than those of conventional engine strategies. In the notion of challenges in new engine operating conditions, this thesis aims to present successful implementation of improvement in numerical modeling techniques in high-pressure spray atomization and resulting turbulent spray flame of interest. Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in in-cylinder turbu- lent combustion is considered an integral part of engine design progress, but rather a cost-prohibitive to apply over a broad range of engine relevant conditions. In spite of successful use of existing spray atomization modeling, prior researchers have pointed out some degree of failure in LTC targeted injection strategies. Furthermore, finite rate and strong nonlinearity of chemistry influenced by local turbulent mixing still re- main in challenges to account for in cost-efficient CFD analysis. In this context, a new attempt of hybrid spray primary breakup modeling is presented and demonstrated in successful application aimed at LTC technique. In addition, the Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF) model with aid of multi-flamelets approach is extensively assessed in terms of predictive capability against classical combustion model. The combustion model employed in this study are fully examined in the general diesel combustion metric, e.g., ignition delay and flame lift-off length as well as newly sug- gested test metric, combustion recession. The combustion recession has been recently idenfied, but still remain largely unknown. Since the governing physics of this phenomenon is characterized by turbulent mixing coupled with finite rate chemistry, this can be considered as a relevant test metric for turbulent combustion models. In addition, very recent experimental studies have introduced a new non-sooting diesel combustion technique by manipulating direct injection method. The ducted fuel injection (DFI) has thus been demonstrated with its potential of low soot emissions. Knowing that the duct equipped ahead of injector nozzle was identifed to enhance turbulent mixing, investigations of DFI combustion may prove the effectiveness of turbulece-chemistry interaction modeling. This thesis presents comprehensive under- standings of aformentioned diesel combustion techniques in terms of several important physics keywords, e.g., turbulent mixing and detailed chemistry.