Optical coupler design and experimental demonstration for 2.5D/3D heterogeneous integrated electronics
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The objective of the dissertation is to theoretically design and experimentally demonstrate optical couplers for 2.5D/3D heterogeneous integrated electronics. In the first part, a new concept, "Equivalent Index Slab (EIS)" method, is proposed to extend the application of Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis (RCWA) to rectangular waveguide grating diffraction involving surface waves. RCWA-EIS method can be applied to optimize rectangular grating couplers with arbitrary profiles and to analyze the effects of angular misalignments on the coupling efficiency. In the second part, a fundamentally new coupling structure, Grating-Assisted-cylindrical-Resonant-Cavities (GARC) coupler, is introduced to achieve efficient and broadband interlayer coupling. GARC coupler is based on evanescent field coupling between waveguides and the interconnecting via, and the via serves as a cylindrical resonant cavity which is further assisted by the circular gratings to enhance the field. In the third part, a passive fiber alignment and assembly approach, Fiber-Interconnect Silicon Chiplet Technology (FISCT), is demonstrated using a combination of silicon micromachining and 3D printing to achieve efficient and convenient near-vertical fiber-to-chip coupling.