Hypersonic shape parameterization using class – shape transformation with stagnation point heat flux
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In recent years, hypersonics is undergoing a major resurgence that is primarily driven by domestic and foreign militaries to have an advanced and unchallenged weapon system. China and Russia have tested hypersonic systems, and the United States is pushing to match and exceed adversarial capabilities. While the concept of hypersonic vehicles is not a recently conceived concept, it has experienced turbulent progress throughout the decades. Hypersonic vehicles are inherently complex vehicles to design due to intricate couplings between design disciplines: aerodynamics, aerodynamic heating, trajectory, structures, and controls. As computational analysis tools in these disciplines have progressed, the geometries and vehicles must progress as well. For aerodynamic purposes, hypersonic vehicles often contain sharp leading-edges to achieve high lift-to-drag properties. However, the use of sharp leading edges at hypersonic velocities also results in severe aerodynamic heating. The severe aerodynamic heating can lead to the destruction of materials and the entire vehicle, as was the case in the Space Shuttle Challenger accident. The aerodynamic heating, specifically the stagnation point heat flux, has been found to be directly related to the leading-edge radius of a given shape. The purpose of this thesis is to implement the shape parameterization method known as the class-shape transformation (CST) method with stagnation point heat flux. The CST method is a proven method in research where geometries can be optimized in aerodynamics to obtain maximum lift-to-drag ratio (L/D). Instead of taking a shape and having to perform time-consuming analyses to determine the leading-edge heat flux, an initial geometry can be determined with approximate hypersonic operating conditions. The objective of this research is to 1) leverage a parametric shaping modeling method to generate geometries that 2) incorporates an aspect of hypersonic aerodynamic heating effects on the geometry and 3) optimize the new geometry for maximum aerodynamic efficiency.