Design of III-N vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by numerical simulation
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This thesis describes the design of an ultraviolet (UV) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode (VCSEL). The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to design a VCSEL with an emission wavelength λ = 369.5 nm for laser cooling in an Yb-based chip-scale atomic clock. Advanced semiconductor device simulation tools have been used for a theoretical study of III-N VCSELs by self-consistent electro-opto-thermal numerical simulations. Critical factors that limit device performance have been identified such as resistive lateral hole current spreading layers with high optical loss, low reflectivity bottom distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), high thermal resistance, and electron leakage. Mitigation strategies for the abovementioned critical problems will be discussed in detail. The broader theme of this dissertation is to demonstrate the process of designing a laser diode.