X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the Analysis of Thin Films
Tavakoli, David A.
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XRD is a powerful technique to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses of materials and is most widely used for the identification of unknown crystalline materials. Determination of unknown solids is critical to studies in geology, environmental science, and material science to name but a few. When X-Rays contact a crystal, a series of reflections are produced that are unique and characteristic for each phase, similar to a fingerprint. It is a laboratory method that does not require large amounts of material, even very small amounts of material can be measured with special holders, and is non-destructive. Though often used as a technique to work with powders or bulk materials, this presentation will be focused on how thin films from nanometers to micrometers in thickness can be analyzed. Glancing Angle XRD is a technique to look at the chemistry and dislocation of thin films. Reflectivity is a technique that will allow us to measure the thickness of thin films, as well as its density and roughness.
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