A Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Approach to Sizing Stopped Rotor Configurations Utilizing Reaction Drive and Circulation Control
Mavris, Dimitri N.
Tai, Jimmy C. M.
Schrage, Daniel P.
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Over the years, the U. S. rotorcraft industry and NASA have conducted numerous studies to determine possible candidates for a potential High Speed Rotorcraft Concept (HSRC) and to identify and provide suggestions and solutions to technology issues that might hinder the development of such concept. Many feasible concepts have been proposed and studied including the tilt rotor, the tilt wing, the folding tilt rotor, the variable diameter tilt rotor, the advanced canard tilt rotor, the coaxial propfan/folding tilt rotor, and the stopped rotor/wing configuration. Among these concepts, the rotor/wing still remains the least studied compared with the other candidates. This can be attributed primarily to lack of suitable analytical tools to assist the design process and to unfamiliarity with this unconventional concept. The potential success of a stopped rotor/wing configuration can only be determined through direct performance comparisons with the concepts mentioned above using analytical methods of comparable sophistication. The intention of this paper is to address the issues associated with sizing and optimizing a stopped rotor/wing configuration which incorporates a tip jet drive system and Circulation Control devices. In addition, a methodology has been formulated and is presented which forms a foundation upon which a new sizing code capable of handling this unique concept can be developed. Since the subject of this paper deals with a concept that enables relatively uncommon technologies, a review of the physics associated with these concepts is also presented.