DECISION SUPPORT FRAMEWORK FOR TRANSFORMING URBAN BUILDINGS AT MULTIPLE SCALES
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Due to the increasing population, cities are requiring more energy. Among urban elements, buildings account for about 40% of energy demands and 30% of carbon dioxide emissions globally. To address the increase of energy demands and environmental responsibility, existing buildings should be transformed into highly energy efficient forms. This research explores how to support decisions that affect performance-driven smart and resilient urban systems focusing on building renovations. The research scope covers the redevelopment of existing built forms at multiple scales. Since urban objects influence urban patterns at other scales, both individual and collective performances of buildings at larger scales should be evaluated to support proper redevelopment decisions. In addition, the transformation of existing buildings will encounter different problems and challenges at different scales in urban areas. On an individual building level, the selection of different envelope options can project the future architectural environment of buildings. On a block level, the performance will be changed along with combinations of building typologies such as land use, height, floor area, etc., and therefore changes to building typologies should be managed collectively to improve the performance. When PV are applied in buildings and hourly electricity demands are recognized, the dynamic energy flows on a community level will become complex to manage. In this respect, this research is devised to identify and address redevelopment problems at different scales: individual buildings, block, and community. On the individual building level, this research studies how to support decision-making when optimizing the selection of building envelopes by using a Genetic Algorithm (GA). Based on the findings from optimizing at each scale, an interdependence of building parameters and multiple performance is observed. Therefore, decision frameworks across multiple scales are extrapolated to support community-driven and building-driven decisions. On the block level, this research explores how existing building typologies influence multiple performance indicators in a collective manner to support reconfiguring decisions using a Bayesian Multilevel Modeling. On the community level, this study addresses how the community can optimize block boundaries for resiliently managing the energy demand and supply of groups of buildings by using K-nearest neighbors (KNN) and community clustering algorithms. This research will contribute to making appropriate decisions for investment, regulations, or guidelines when renovating physical building assets at different scales in urban areas. The research findings will consolidate theoretical understandings about the relationships between building design and construction parameters considering multiple performance indicators at multiple scales in urban areas. Since many cities are at the tipping point trying to become more resilient, increasingly focusing on sustainability, economic feasibility, and human well-being, a better understanding of the impact of built forms at multiple scales will support urban development decisions for the future smart and connected communities.