CMOS MULTI-MODAL INTEGRATED SYSTEMS FOR FUTURE BIOELECTRONICS AND BIOSENSORS
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Cells are the basic structural biological units of all known living organisms. They are highly sophisticated system with thousands of molecules operating in hundreds of pathways to maintain their proper functions, phenotypes, and physiological behaviors. With this scale of complexity, cells often exhibit multi-physiological properties as their cellular fingerprints from external stimulations. In order to further advance the frontiers in bioscience and biotechnologies such as stem cell manufacturing, synthetic biology, and regenerative medicine, it is required to comprehend complex cell physiology of living cells. Therefore, a comprehensive set of technologies is needed to harvest quantitative biological data from given cell samples. Such demands have stimulated extensive research on new bioelectronics and biosensors to characterize their functional information by converting their biological activities to electrical signals. As a result, various bioelectronics and biosensors are reported and employed in many in vivo and in vitro applications. Since sensing electrodes of the devices are physically in touch with biological/chemical samples and record their signals, long-term biocompatibility and chemical/mechanical stability is of paramount importance in numerous biological applications. Furthermore, the devices should achieve high sensitivity/resolution/linearity, large field-of-view (FoV), multi-modal sensing, and real-time monitoring, while maintaining small feature size of devices to use small volume of biological/chemical samples and reduce cost. As a result, My Ph.D research aims to study interfacial electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of electrodes with different combination of materials/sizes and to design novel multi-modal sensing/actuation array architectures with CMOS compatible in-house post-processing to address the design challenges of the bioelectronics and biosensors.