VCSEL Modeling and Parameter Extraction for Optical Link Simulation and Optimization
Melgar Evangelista, Alirio A.
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A single and multimode vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) model and the associated parameter extraction using bandwidth and intensity noise measurements was proposed. To meet the growing bandwidth demand, optical VCSEL links are commonly turning to equalization, and multilevel modulation formats. The need for an accurate physics-based rate equation model is critical for the design and analysis of VCSEL links as we move past 25Gb/s. Single and multimode VCSEL models were able to accurately capture the bandwidth and noise characteristics of VCSELs over a large range of operating conditions. Through spatial mode overlaps, which cause inter and intra mode gain saturation, the multimode VCSEL model uncovered a possible source of positive and negative mode noise correlations recently discovered in VCSELs which affect RIN. Through S-parameter VCSEL characterization and intensity noise measurements, our models could extract and simulate extrinsic and intrinsic VCSEL PAM-4 performance for 100Gb/s+ short reach optical links.