Simulation of compound anchor intrusion in dry sand by a hybrid FEM+SPH method
Hammond III, Frank L.
Goldman, Daniel I.
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The intrusion of deformable compound anchors in dry sand is simulated by coupling the Finite Element Method (FEM) with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). This novel approach can calculate granular flows at lower computational cost than SPH alone. The SPH and FEM domains interact through reaction forces calculated from balance equations and are assigned the same soil constitutive model (Drucker-Prager) and the same constitutive parameters (measured or calibrated). Experimental force-displacement curves are reproduced for penetration depths of 8 mm or more (respectively, 20 mm or more) for spike-shaped (respectively, fan-shaped) anchors with 1 to 6 blades. As the number of blades increases, simulations reveal that the granular flow under the anchor deviates from the vertical and that the horizontal granular flow transitions from orthoradial to radial. We interpret the strain field distribution as the result of soil arching, i.e., the transfer of stress from a yielding mass of soil onto adjoining stationary soil masses. Arching is fully active when the radial distance between blade end points is less than a critical length. In that case, the normal stress that acts on the compound anchor at a given depth reaches the normal stress that acts on a disk-shaped anchor of same radius. A single-blade anchor produces soil deformation and failure similar to Prandtl’s foundation sliding model. Multiblade anchors produce a complex failure mechanism that combines sliding and arching.