Seismic Response and Analysis of Multiple Frame Bridges Using Superelastic Shape Memory Alloys
Andrawes, Bassem Onsi
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The feasibility of using superelastic shape memory alloys in the retrofit of multiple frame bridges is investigated. First, three shape memory alloy constitutive models with various levels of complexity are compared in order to determine the significance of including subloops and cyclic loading effects on the structural response. The results show that the structural response is more sensitive to the shape memory alloys strength degradation and residual deformation than the sublooping behavior. Next, two parametric studies are conducted to explore the sensitivity of hinge opening to the mechanical behavior of the superelastic shape memory alloys. The first study is focused on the hysteretic properties of the alloy that could vary depending on the chemical composition or the manufacturing process of the alloy, while the second study targets the changes in the mechanical behavior of shape memory alloys resulting from the variability in the ambient temperature. The results show that the hysteretic behavior of shape memory alloys has only a slight effect on the bridge hinge opening as long as the recentering property is maintained. A detailed study on the effect of temperature shows that a reduction in the ambient temperature tends to negatively affect the hinge opening while an increase in temperature results in a slight improvement. Next, a parametric study is conducted to examine the effectiveness of shape memory alloy retrofit devices in limiting hinge openings in bridges with various properties. In addition, a comparison is made with other devices such as conventional steel restrainers, metallic dampers, and viscoelastic solid dampers. The results illustrate that superelastic shape memory alloys are superior in their effectiveness compared to other devices in the case of bridges with moderate period ratios and high level of ductility, especially when subjected to strong earthquakes.