Demanding and Supportive Transformational Leadership Behaviors and Follower Sleep Outcomes: A Multilevel Moderated Serial Mediation Model
Burnett, Claire Elyse
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Transformational leadership behaviors in the workplace are commonly studied as a form of support and are associated with positive follower health outcomes. However, when parsed apart into its facets, transformational leadership may also act as a demand for followers that negatively impacts them daily. Drawing from the Job-Demands Resources (JD-R) Theory (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007), this study investigated the facets of transformational leadership (Bass, 1985) acting differentially to influence follower sleep outcomes—first through the mediation of fatigue and then through performance of sleep hygiene behaviors—all at the daily level. The supportive facets of transformational leadership were thought to increase sleep quality and quantity at the daily level, while the demanding facets were proposed to decrease them. Because of the heightened response to stressors that neurotic individuals exhibit, neuroticism was explored as a moderating mechanism on the relationship between leader demands and fatigue. This study used a sample of 127 full-time, working adults and experience sampling methods over a 10-day period in order to measure these variables at the daily level. Ultimately, the proposed facets of supportive and transformational leadership were supported, but the proposed direct, mediating, and moderating relationships were not. This study contributes to theory is in its expansion of transformational leadership theory—pointing to a demanding and a supportive factor. Further research is warranted to explore the timeframe during which relationships between leader behavior and follower health outcomes unfold.