Factors influencing natural attenuation of dinitrotoluenes in surface soils: Badger Army Ammunition Plant a case study
Tulsiani, Urvi Kotak
MetadataShow full item record
Factors influencing natural attenuation of dinitrotoluenes (DNT) in surface soils and the application of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy were examined using contaminated soils from Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP). Based on the previous research involving contaminated media obtained from locations at BAAP, and the fact that groundwater at the site is not contaminated, it seemed likely that aerobic biodegradation of DNT is active without intervention, and that natural attenuation may be an effective strategy for managing the contamination that exists at BAAP. Microcosms showed that microbes indigenous to soils are capable of 2,4-DNT mineralization and that DNT will adsorb reversibly and become bioavailable. In column studies 2,4-DNT biodegradation was observed and the nitrite evolved during DNT degradation was presumably removed due to oxidation by nitrite oxidizers. The use of simulated rainwater as influent with no nutrient amendments suggests that nutrients do not limit the biodegradation of low concentrations of DNT in the soil tested. In the chemostat study carried out to study effect lowering of temperature (22㬠15㬠10㬠7.5㠡nd 4㩠on biodegradation of DNT at hydraulic retention time of 2.5 days, no sustained change in the DNT substrate removal was observed with change in temperature, but it had a large effect on the nitrite oxidizers. This suggests that the seasonal fluctuations in temperature will have minimal effect on the DNT removal via biodegradation at temperatures above 0㮠Nitrite oxidizers were active at 22㬠their activity decreased at 15㠡nd ceased at temperatures 10㠡nd lower. Nitrite is generally taken as a line of evidence for biodegradation of DNT. The results from the soil column study and chemostat showed that nitrite measurement should not be always taken as a conclusive indicator of DNT degradation. It should be taken into consideration that absence of nitrite does not necessarily mean absence of DNT biodegradation (probably at high temperatures).