Synthesis and Characterization of Low and Negative Thermal Expansion Materials
Kutukcu, Mehmet Nuri
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The preparation and thermophysical properties of some In(I), Ga(I) and Ag(I) substituted NZP type materials were explored. Many compositions with the NZP framework show low and negative thermal expansion. Previously reported material, GaZr2(PO4(3, transforms from one NZP related phase into another NZP type phase due to oxidation under air above 300oC. In addition, it exhibits hysteresis under inert atmosphere; the cell parameters are different on heating and cooling cycles for a given temperature. The synthesis, and characterization of a new material, InZr2(PO4)3, is outlined. It crystallizes in space group R -3 c. In addition, as GaZr2(PO4)3, it oxidizes above 300oC under air and exhibits hysteresis under inert atmosphere. Furthermore, the synthesis of AgTixZr2-x(PO4)3 solid solution compositions, their ion exchange characteristics with Ga(I) and their thermophysical properties are described. Thermal expansion anisotropy (the difference between a and c ) of the solid solutions decreases as the bigger ion, Zr4+, is substituted by the smaller one, Ti4+. Thermal expansion characteristics of GaZr2(PO4)3, InZr2(PO4)3 and AgZr2(PO4)3 are compared with MZr2(PO4)3 ( M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs). Ionic radii for Ga(I) and In(I) in a six coordinate oxygen environment were proposed.