The manipulation of user expectancies: effects on reliance, compliance, and trust using an automated system
Mayer, Andrew K.
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As automated technologies continue to advance, they will be perceived more as collaborative team members and less as simply helpful machines. Expectations of the likely performance of others play an important role in how their actual performance is judged (Stephan, 1985). Although user expectations have been expounded as important for human-automation interaction, this factor has not been systematically investigated. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect older and younger adults expectations of likely automation performance have on human-automation interaction. In addition, this study investigated the effect of different automation errors (false alarms and misses) on dependence, reliance, compliance, and trust in an automated system. Findings suggest that expectancy effects are relatively short lived, significantly affecting reliance and compliance only through the first experimental block. The effects of type of automation error indicate that participants in a false alarm condition increase reliance and decrease compliance while participants in a miss condition do not change their behavior. The results are important because expectancies must be considered when designing training for human-automation interaction. In addition, understanding the effects of type of automation errors is crucial for the design of automated systems. For example, if the automation is designed for diverse and dynamic environments where automation performance may fluctuate, then a deeper understanding of automation functioning may be needed by users.