The Biology and Therapeutic Promise of Small RNAs
Sharp, Phillip A.
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The discovery of the multiple roles of small RNAs in regulation of gene expression is a revolutionary advance in biology. MicroRNAs probably interact with mRNAs from half of all human genes. Overexpression of some microRNAs is associated with certain types of cancer while, more commonly, a reduction in microRNA levels is seen in tumors. Recent evidence suggests that the primary role of microRNAs might be to provide robustness or stability to systems. We have recently found that cytoplasmic subcellular localization of mRNAs and microRNAs is dependent upon formation of poly(ADP-ribose) and that microRNA repression is reduced under stress conditions.