Barriers and Challenges in Organising the Africa Research Area
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African universities are still suffering from the difficulties they faced in the 1980s and in this regard the American Chronicle of Higher Education recently stated that, "African universities' capacity to educate new PhD holders is eroding, raising deep concerns about the continent's ability to produce new generations of academics, educators." Over the period 2000-2004 Africa produced only 1.8 % of the world's publications. In comparison India produced 2.4 % and Latin America 3.5 % of the world's research. Moreover it has been suggested that much of research is concentrated in only two African countries, i.e. South Africa, and Egypt which between them account for just above 50% of the continent's publications. The top 8 countries in Africa produce above 80 % of the continent's research. Africa's inventive profile also shows that the continent needs to catch up; as it is said it produces less than one thousand of the world's inventions, where 88% of the continent's inventive activity is located in South Africa.