Performance of dynamic decoupling control sequences on trapped ⁴⁰Ca⁺
Wright, Kenneth Earl
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One of the fundamental problems of chemistry is the difficulty in determining full quantum mechanical descriptions of molecules. Molecules contain many degrees of freedom and as a result the classical description scales factorially with the number of electrons. One way to overcome this mismatch between quantum and classical pictures is to use one quantum system, a quantum computer, to simulate another. Quantum computation is based upon a two-level system, a qubit, which is analogous to a bit in classical computation. Unlike a classical bit, a qubit can exist in a superposition of quantum states. The interaction between a quantum system and its environment results in the decay of the superposition state of the system into a probability density of classical states . This is known as decoherence. A realistic quantum computer requires qubits with long coherence times; with respect to the achievable gating times, for a formal relation refer to section 1.2.2. The spin echo effect in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) offers a way to increase the coherence time of a qubit and has been studied as a way to mitigate decoherence in quantum computation. By applying an appropriate Π pulse to a system under the influence of a large external field, as in NMR, the interaction term of the Hamiltonian between the qubit and environment can be eliminated. Periodic implementation of such pulses is known as periodic dynamic decoupling (PDD). Similar to PDD, concatenated dynamic decoupling (CDD) is a periodic pulse sequence which removes the interaction term of the Hamiltonian, however in CDD pulse sequences are recursively embedded within the overall pulse train. Such pulse sequences have been shown theoretically to work for model quantum systems such as GaAs quantum dots, and theoretically such pulse sequences vastly improve the coherence time of a qubit . There have been many calculations showing that by progressively increasing the number of concatenated pulse sequences increasingly longer coherence times can be achieved . These techniques have not been tested in the laboratory and experimental implementation of these promising techniques motivates current research. There also continues to be extensive work on developing novel pulse sequences which may improve coherence times even further. The goal of this research is to experimentally determine the coherence times which can be achieved with a trapped calcium atom by applying these pulse sequences.