All-copper chip-to-substrate interconnections for flip-chip packages
Lightsey, Charles Hunter
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Avatrel 8000P's excellent photo-definition properties and mechanical strength make it an ideal polymer collar material. Avatrel 8000P is a high contrast, I-line sensitive mixture that can be developed in traditional aqueous-base developers. The great photolithographical performance of this photopolymer can be partly contributed to the minimal amount of light absorbed by the base norbornene polymer. The processing conditions noted in this work are an optimized version, which have been shown to give superior photolithographical performance. The simple baking procedures make Avatrel 8000P easier to process than SU-8. The ability to develop Avatrel 8000P in aqueous base can reduce chemical waste. As shown by SEM images, high fidelity structures with aspect ratios of 7:1 can be fabricated in thick films with vertical sidewalls. Bonding between two copper surfaces over various gap sizes was achieved by electroless deposition without the addition of surfactants or inhibitors in the bath. The effect of anneal temperature on the electroless bond formed was analyzed. The electroless bond strength increased with anneal temperature. However, the bond strength estimation for samples annealed at 80°C to 120°C is a minimum value due to the failure location of most of the pillars and the resulting area used in the calculation of bond strength. Grain growth from copper recrystallization and removal of small defects improve the bond strength. Large voids at the interface of the two pillars were related to rough starting surfaces for the electroplated pillars.