Sunlight Ancient and Modern: the Relative Energy Efficiency of Hydrogen from Coal and Current Biomass
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The significance of hydrogen production is increasing as fossil fuels are being depleted and energy security is of increasing importance to the United States. Furthermore, its production offers the potential to alleviate concerns regarding global warming and air pollution. In this thesis we focused on examining the efficiency of hydrogen production from current biomass compared to that from fossil fuel coal. We explored the efficiencies of maximum hydrogen production from biomass and from coal under current technology, namely coal gasification and biomass pyrolysis, together with following-up technologies such as steam reforming (SR). Bio-oil, product from pyrolysis and precursor for steam reforming, is hard to define. We proposed a simulation tool to estimate the pyrolytic bio-oil composition from various biomasses. The results helped us understand the accuracy that is needed for bio-oil composition prediction in the case it is converted to hydrogen. Hydrogen production is energy intensive. Therefore, heat integration is necessary to raise the overall thermodynamic efficiencies for both coal gasification and biomass pyrolysis. The results showed that considering the ultimate energy source, sunlight, about 6-fold more sunlight would be required for the coal to hydrogen than that for biomass to hydrogen. The main difference is in the efficiency of conversion of the ancient biomass to coal and therefore, for modern mankind, this loss has already been incurred.